In group thinking, the members of the Denknach group emphasize the fact that everyone agrees and feels threatened if everyone does not agree on an approach. As a result, better options are overlooked to provide alternatives, criticisms or a new opinion to those who overcome their fundamental ideas. The result is poor decision-making, unfilled goals and problem-solving. A term similar to group thinking is the Abilene paradox, another phenomenon harmful to group work. When organizations fall into the Abilene paradox, they take measures that go against their perceived objectives and, therefore, precisely beat the goals they are trying to achieve. [23] If you do not communicate your desires or beliefs, this can cause the Abilene paradox. According to Janis, decision groups are not necessarily for group thinking. He developed ways to prevent group thoughts:[10]:209-215 The April 1961 invasion of the United States was the main case study used by Janis to formulate his theory of group thinking. [9] The invasion plan was initiated by the Eisenhower administration, but when the Kennedy administration took over, it accepted the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) plan “without criticism.” [9]:44 When some people, such as Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.

and Senator J. William Fulbright, attempted to voice their objections to the plan, the Kennedy team as a whole ignored these objections and always believed in the morality of their plan. [9]:46 Finally, Schlesinger downplayed his own doubts and made self-censorship. [9]:74 The De Kennedy team stereotyped Fidel Castro and the Cubans by failing to question the CIA about their many false assumptions, including the ineffectiveness of Castro`s air force, the weakness of Castro`s army and Castro`s inability to suppress internal uprisings. [9]46 The main principle of group thinking that I offer in the spirit of the Parkinson`s Law is: “The more kindness and esprit de corps among members of a political group, the greater the risk that independent critical thinking will be replaced by group thinking, which can lead to irrational and dehustant actions against groups.” [9]44 Janis laid the groundwork for the study of group thinking, beginning with his research in the American Soldier Project, where he studied the effects of extreme burden on the group leader.

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